As of 2016, life expectancy in Scotland was lower for both females and males than anywhere else in western Europe, and was not improving as quickly as in other western European countries. For women living in Kensington & Chelsea they could have expected to live until they turned 84.3 - a jump of two years. Health can be thought of and measured in many ways, as positive or negative well-being/mental health, length of life, absence of disease, freedom from disability, mortality and in terms of lifestyle and behaviour. At the other end of the scale, West Dunbartonshire - north-west of Glasgow - had the worst news for women, with their life expectancy being 78.8 if born tomorrow. For females, life expectancy was highest in remote rural areas (82.8 years) and lowest in large urban areas (80.6 years). Click on our infographic to see the key facts from this indicator set. For males, life expectancy at birth was highest in Orkney Islands where a baby boy could expect to live until he was 80.3 years old. Meanwhile, the old, unskilled and unemployed became concentrated in the city proper, leading some to describe the policy as “skimming the cream of Glasgow.”.  One in four men in Glasgow will die before his sixty-fifth birthday.  Factors include the "lagged effects" of overcrowding and the former practice, in the 1960s and 1970s, of offering young, skilled workers social housing in new towns outside Glasgow; this, according to a 1971 government document, threatened to leave behind an "unbalanced population with a very high proportion of the old, the very poor and the almost unemployable". "It's not 'just deprivation': Why do equally deprived UK cities experience different health outcomes?". Historically, less has been spent per capita in housing repairs and maintenance. One example is the fourfold increase in alcohol-related deaths that occurred between 1991 and 2002. , Although lower income levels are generally associated with poor health and shorter lifespan, epidemiologists have argued that poverty alone does not appear to account for the disparity found in Glasgow. The ability to attain good health, he suggested, depends in part on whether people feel in control of their lives, and whether they see their environments as threatening or supportive. Liverpool and Manchester have the lowest life expectancies in the UK.  According to a 2016 study, 43 percent of adults are classified as either disabled or chronically ill. However, the ONS suggested the slowdown could be down to a realisation of efforts to improve life span, such as cutting down smoking. But for a GP in those areas there’s a huge intensity of workload, because people tend to develop chronic diseases at a much younger age than they would if they were living in more affluent areas.” For Lunan, providing proper resources to frontline and primary care services has to be part of the solution to health inequalities. People living in more deprived areas of Scotland have a shorter life expectancy than those living in less deprived areas. But Scotland’s status as the “sick man of Europe” isn’t simply down to poor diet, tobacco and alcohol intake. The study also described changes in population, housing, environmental and socio-economic circumstances at a city and neighbourhood level. "The Sun", "Sun", "Sun Online" are registered trademarks or trade names of News Group Newspapers Limited. And for North Lanarkshire, which came bottom of the table for women in 2001 with an expectancy of 77.3, women living there can now expect to live an extra two years. Moira lives in Glasgow's East End, in an area ravaged by drugs and her own family has paid a heavy price. In the 1950s, in response to post-war housing, health and economic problems, the Scottish Office embarked on a programme of “modernisation” that relocated thousands from their homes in the city to nearby New Towns. Why do equally deprived UK cities experience different health outcomes? Media related to Glasgow effect at Wikimedia Commons. , The Glasgow Centre for Population Health (GCPH) was established in 2004 to study the causes of Glasgow's ill health; the centre's partners are NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow City Council and the University of Glasgow. Using Government statistics, the map also tells over 65s how long they have left on their bus passes. The population in Glasgow decreased marginally by -0.6% between 1996 and 2012. This is in part because improvements in health have lagged behind other comparable cities in the UK.  Equally deprived areas of the UK such as Liverpool and Manchester have higher life expectancies, and the wealthiest ten percent of the Glasgow population have a lower life expectancy than the same group in other cities. smoking status, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity) and biological (e.g. So helping people to reduce their alcohol intake requires you to understand why they drink in the first place, and whether some of it is cultural, some of it is social, or some of it is to deal with trauma.”. The gap in life expectancy across Renfrewshire has been described as “staggering”.  Defined as "[e]xcess mortality in the West of Scotland (Glasgow) after controlling for deprivation", the Glasgow effect is part of the "Scottish effect"; the country as a whole has health disparities compared to the rest of Europe, and indeed it has been called "the sick man of Europe".
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